In busy underground stations or platforms, fire incidents can be disastrous due to the confined environment and limited escape routes. Evacuation can be challenging as evacuation routes easily become congested in emergency situations, and smoke can cause poor visibility. Quick
evacuation is crucial for protecting people from fire and toxic smoke.
Fires in underground facilities can have severe consequences not only for people trying to escape or evacuate themselves through smoke-filled designated evacuation routes, but also the collapse of the building structure or destruction of critical power or communication networks can have catastrophic consequences.